Laboratory of Building- and Environmental Aerodynamics
Director: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. h.c. Bodo Ruck
Institute for Hydromechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Kaiserstr. 12, 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany
Tel.:  +49 (0)721 608 43897, Fax:  +49 (0)721 608 43191


Measuring technique

Instruments
For the measurement of flow properties several systems based on LDA-, PIV and PTV-principle are available. Additionally laser-based light sheet systems are used for flow visualization. High precision pressure gauges and transducers are used for pressure measurements. Concentration measurement systems based on FID-technique allow to measure the spread-out of tracers or pollutants. Balances permit to measure forces and moments of buildings and structures under consideration. Vibration sensors measure flow induced vibrations.
Optical flow measuring systems
(->Strömungsmessgrößen)

Laser optical flow measuring technique are working non-intrusively and deliver the most accurate flow information. Particularly in wind tunnel technology, where down-scaled models are explored, laser-based flow measuring systems guarantee the best temporal and spacial resolution.
Laser Doppler anemometry
(->Laser-Doppler-Anemometrie)

Laser Doppler anemometry is one of the most advanced contactless flow measuring technique delivering non-intrusively time mean and fluctuating flow quantities like mean velocities, fluctuatuing velocities, turbulent quantities, shear stresses etc.

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                  2-D-LDA-System für Kanal A

 
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               Two-dimensional LDA-systems for wind tunnel B,C und D

Further information on the German Association for Laser Anemometry GALA e.V. see also:http://www.gala-ev.de
Laser light sheet technique (LLS)

With laser light sheet systems, the beam of a laser is transformed by a cylindrical lens or a scanner into a light sheet. This light sheet is positioned into the flow field an visualizes flow structures due to a different movement and optical reflection of suspended tracers. Thus, flow structures like vortices can be easily visualized.

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Visualization of vortices araound a model building

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Principle of light sheet generation by a rotating drum

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Principle of laser light sheet technique

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Laser tomography
(Laser-Tomographie)

Laser tomography is a new technology, which allows to freeze flow structures immedeately. Staggered light sheets scan extremely fast the flow field delivering a sequenze of tomograms. These tomograms can be recombined in three dimensions in a computer yielding a comprehensive impression of the 3-D-structure.

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Tomogram-based reconstruction of a free jet
with cross flow from behind
 

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                                  Principle of laser tomography in fluid mechanics


Pressure measuring technique


The measurement of outdoor and indoor pressures acting walls and surface components is a classical task of building aerodynamics. Wind pressures and wind loads on facades, gates, windows, chimneys, towers, hall buildings etc. are measured by way of a precise probe technology. Usually, the model under consideration is equipped with an great number of pressure taps delivering a comprehensive impression of the pressure field. Pressure measurements can be performed in a time mean or time resolved manner.

Measuring systems for pollutant dispersion

The dispersion of pollutants or substances around buildings can be simulated along with different measuring methods in the wind tunnel. Tracer gases are used to simulate the dispersion, e.g. SF6, which is released at selected points in the model. In dependence of influencing parameters (wind direction, wind speed, wind turbulence) the local concentration is measured then at different monitoring points. Knowing the source concentration allows to indicate from the measzred data so-called dimensionsless concentrations in the wind tunnel model and its environment.

Sand erosion technique

Simple, not high-resolving flow visualization technique for wind comfort studies (old technique). Sand is dispersed over the model (ground). Due to the flow "intensity" the sand gets eroded at points of high flow action. Thus, an assessment of wind comfort can be performed on the basis of this simple experiment. Nowadays, wind comfort studies are performed by laser-based flow measuring techniques allowing the most accurate information on flow velocity, flow direction and turbulence parameters.

Optical laboratory

For the development of new or model-adapted laser-based velocity measuring techniques, an optical laboratory with vibration-damped optical tables, lasers and computers is available.

Lbor1.jpg (186270 Byte)  Labor2.jpg (179769 Byte) Labor3.jpg (204878 Byte)

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